Alcohol and liver disease

A lot of people see alcohol as simply something to be enjoyed and as a normal part of life in the UK. Other than a few unwelcome side effects, such as a hangover or putting on a bit of weight, many of us are unaware about the unseen damage alcohol can do to the body.

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Alcohol and liver disease


What does alcohol do to your Liver?

If you drink over the recommended guidelines (see below), your liver will be unable to process the alcohol you consume quickly enough, which damages the cells in your liver. 

Ongoing damage to the liver does not cause pain, you may not have any symptoms of the inflammation, fatty deposits or scarring affecting it until your liver disease is severe, at which point you are at risk of liver failure and death. The liver is your largest internal organ. As well as hundreds of other jobs, it processes the alcohol you drink.

What is a unit of alcohol?

Regularly drinking more than the lower-risk levels of alcohol (defined by the NHS as 14 units a week, spread over several days, with two or three alcohol-free days every week, ideally consecutively) can seriously harm your liver. These guidelines, which are strongly supported by the British Liver Trust, are the same for men and women. 

If you are generally healthy, eat a well-balanced diet and take regular exercise, sensible drinking (as outlined above) shouldn’t lead to problems with the liver.

It is a lot easier to overdrink than many people realise, putting vast numbers of us in danger of alcohol-related illnesses.

Different Stages of Alcohol-related liver disease

Alcohol-related liver disease can be broken down into stages. Addressing the condition early may prevent it progressing and possibly leading to a liver transplant or death.

The first stage is a result of a build-up of fat in your liver. When alcohol is metabolised it results in overproduction of fat in the liver. A healthy liver should have little or no fat but if you drink more than your liver can cope with, fat can build up, leading to fatty liver disease.

If you have a fatty liver, and don’t stop or reduce your intake of alcohol, you are at a high risk of developing alcohol-related hepatitis. This is a condition where your liver becomes inflamed, swollen and tender. Alcohol-related hepatitis can occur at an early stage or after many years of harmful drinking.

The final and irreversible stage of alcohol-related liver disease is cirrhosis. This is usually the result of long-term, continuous damage to the liver. Irregular bumps, known as nodules, replace the smooth liver tissue and the liver becomes stiffer due to the accumulation of scar tissue. As a result, the shape of the liver becomes distorted. This can lead to complete liver failure as there are too few cells left to carry out normal liver functions.

About one in 10 people who drink harmful amounts will develop cirrhosis.

For more information, download our publication You can also visit the Support section of our website for help and advice in your area, and see the Useful links section for more organisations that can help.


Alcohol and Older People

Online resource providing an overview of the growing relevance of alcohol and how it interacts with the health of older people (defined here as those aged over 55 years).

Leeds Transplant Centre 

See the following useful information regarding alcohol related liver disease and transplants:
Leeds Alcohol and the liver workbook

Find Support

Please visit the support section of our website for information on Support groups in your area.